Liam's Watershed Blog Page

More water quality signs 6/1/17
Some water quality signs are temperature, difference from one part of a river, lake or pond. And how cloudy the water is (turbidity). And fecal coliform bacteria.

Temperature affects the amount of of dissolved oxygen (DO).Because photosynthesis adds DO to the water. However when the water is warm photosynthesis increases which means there is a lot of plants which adds a lot of DO, and when the plants die the decomposition creates bacteria that uses the DO up again.

Temperature is a big variable in what organisms and fish can live in the body of water. The reason why, is that most organisms live in certain temperature of water. Some like cooler water and some don't.If a body of water changes from warm water to colder water. The warm water organisms will have to find a new home or pass away. Then cooler water organisms will come and live there.

Thermal pollution is heat pollution from humans that make the ecosystem out of balance. One source is warm water being added by industries. Scientists test the temperature of a body of water at is source and move to another area in the body of water, if the temperatures are 0 to 4 degrees near to each other, the water quality is great if the difference is 4-9 degrees Fahrenheit the quality is pretty good. If there is a 10-18 degrees Fahrenheit difference the water quality of the water is ok. 19 degrees Fahrenheit and up is very poor water quality.

Turbidity is the measure of how murky the water is. It is important because, not as many types of organisms can live in turbid water as can live in clearwater. Because there is less sunlight being able to get through the water. The floating particles absorb the sunlight which increases the water temperature which causes oxygen levels to fall because warm water holds less oxygen.

The causes of turbid water, can be soil erosion and urban runoff that make the water murky. Sediment disturbances make the water more turbid because silt is moving around making the water murkier than it was. Sediment disturbances can be from boat activity and to much bottom feeders kicking up the silt from the bottom.

Fecal coliform is a bacteria that is in poop from mammals and birds. Fecal coliform can cause disease in a lot of animals including humans. Fecal coliform gets into waterways by groundwater, runoff, and also sewage discharge.

Humans cause most of these problems but be can alter them. We can alter thermal pollution by having industries not be using the water from the body of water directly and have them not empty anything in it.That will help with temperature differences in the water.

For Turbidity if we could plant more trees and plants that lived year round so erosion won't play a big part in turbidity. Also to help stop the urban runoff we could use roadside drainage systems which filter the water then sends the water to the nearest body of water. To get directed forward to stop the silt from kicking up as much is using canoes, rowboats, sailboats, and ect. instead of using motor boats which kick up more silt than other boats.

If we had more of those drainage systems but they weren't just on the road that filtered the water out and sent it to the nearest body of water than fecal coliform bacteria wouldn't be as consistent in our body of waters.

By altering these water quality problems more waterways and body's of water will be clear.

The Water Filter building Experience 5/1/17
The experience with making water filters was good because, you got to see how filters works what materials work the best and vise versa. How slow some materials take to filter out water and how fast it can filter.

The water filter materials we used were paper filters, screen, and sand and gravel. I predicted that the paper filter would work the best because it is used in coffee machines and that if used more than one paper filter it won't rip and pollute the water. For the screen I predicted that the water would just flow right through the screen and only stop things that can't fit through the holes and the sand and gravel I predicted that the sand would go in the water and pollute the water and take a long time.

The most ideal filter is the sand and gravel design because it gives the water the most clarity and unlike my prediction the sand did not flow out into the water. It was not efficient in time but it was cheap and it works really good. Summary of sand and gravel filter. Great clarity, doesn´t smell, takes a long time to filter water, cheap, and the best out of these other options :`screen and paper filter

Duckweed and Fertilizer contrate Inquiry

We had to make a procedure for our duckweed experiment. I wrote, step 1: we filled our test tubes with water (20ML), Step 2: we added 0.4ml of fertilizer, Step 3: we added four duckweed plants into the water, Step 4: we counted how many frauns there where in each test tube, Step 5: we wrote how many frauns there were in the test tube,

Where Phosphorus In The Lake Comes
From 12/15/16 Info from 11/7/16

The Environmental Protection agency Estimated that 17.1% of phosphorus in the otter creek watershed came from the forest from forestry. Otter Creek watershed is 60% forested.

The forest is the second biggest source of Phosphorus in the otter creek watershed following Agriculture,at 49%, in third is stream erosion, at 16.4%, fourth is Developed land with 14.4%, The last contributor is wastewater treatment facilities with 14.4%.

Department of forests, Parks and Recreation forestry district manager, Gary Sabourin says “That there hasn’t been a lot of research done on phosphorus contributions from forest land, he has to think that it is relatively low per area. But because forest lands cover such a huge amount of the basin of lake champlain. That it represents a big portion of phosphorus in Lake Champlain.

#O2 level test 11/21/16- 11/22/16
In science we did a dissolved oxygen test to find if Cedar lake is healthy and to see if our guppy tank is healthy for different animal life than what is in it right now and to see if the guppy tank and Cedar lake are healty. We had sample (a) as the pond water and sample (b) as the guppy tank.

My claim is that I don’t think Cedar lake is healthy because their is a lot of invasives that take up a lot of the water surface.

In sample A this is what happened: We first put manganous sulfate & iodide-azide (created the flocculate or floc) which made an orange rusty color. The floc looked like orange pulpe. Next we waited for the floc to settle half way so we could do the next part, the next part we put ulfamic acid (dissolves the rest of the floc) the ulfamic acid made most of the floc go away and turned the water a Root beer brown color. The last test we used sodium thisulfate (drops that we added until the water was clear) for sample (a) it took 14 drops of sodium thisulfate to turn the water clear again.

Next we did the same test with sample (b). When we added manganous sulfate & iodide-azide (created the flocculate or floc) which made a rusty color that made the bottom of the sample chuky. Next we put sulfamic acid (dissolves the rest of the floc) their was still a little floc. The floc particles were a rootbeer brown color and floatingat the top. It took 10 drops of sodium thisulfat to make the water clear agian.

From each step, from each sample it showed that their was not an animal diversity sustainable life with the O2 level test with both of the samples. Sample a had a mgl level of 3 and 2. In Texas cedar lake would be healthy but cedar lake is in vermont and in vermont the mgl level needs to be 7.

I made my claim saying that Cedar lake is not healthy because the invasives take up the most surface space in Cedar lake taking the O2 away from the fish and killing them.


Some of the point source pollution I saw was me and my neighbors chicken coop.The chicken coop is at the top of a hill and at the bottom was a stream that goes to a marsh. The chicken poop was watery. Another point source pollution is the vermont gas pipeline with all of the trucks and machines and pipes in the ground. the last point source pollution I saw was a pipe going into a stream with water coming out of it. One of the non point pollution I saw was gas that spilled out of a car that was flowing down a drain pipe. Another one is that their was cigarettes next to a drain pipe. Their was a broken beer bottle wright next to the river.



Land Uses in the country

The Agricultural Land use. A Vegetable farmer sprays fertilizer on his crop, and pesticides. If the rain comes down in twenty four hours than the pesticides affect the rains water quality. The fertilizer will affect the water quality because the fertilizer will go into the ground affect the groundwater and the runoff, because the fertilizer is most of the time is poisonous if you eat it or if you get it in your eye. And then you put poisonous fertilizer on the ground and know that the rain has come down it is know in our water system in your area.

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